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What is Capsaicin?

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  • What is Capsaicin?

    Not trying to start a train wreck, just genuinely want to know what this substance is and why it is so "bad". It seems as if it is natural, derived from chili peppers. Is the FEI too strict? Do they not allow ANY substances at all, or just within "therapeutic" levels?

    Please inform.

  • #2
    FEI operates under "no foreign substances".

    And just because it's natural doesn't mean it is innocuous. Where do you think most drugs started? Plants!

    Comment


    • #3
      From Wikipedia, so take it with a grain of ... capsaicin???
      ------------------------
      Capsaicin
      /ˌkæpˈseˌɪ.sɪn/ (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is the active component of chili peppers, which are plants belonging to the genus Capsicum. It is an irritant for mammals, including humans, and produces a sensation of burning in any tissue with which it comes into contact. Capsaicin and several related compounds are called capsaicinoids and are produced as a secondary metabolite by chili peppers, probably as deterrents against herbivores. Pure capsaicin is a hydrophobic, colorless, odorless, crystalline to waxy compound.
      Contents

      History

      The molecule was first isolated in 1816 in crystalline form by P. A. Bucholz and again 30 years later by L.T. Thresh, who gave it the name "capsaicion."[1] In 1878, the Hungarian doctor Endre Hogyes (calling it capsicol) isolated it and proved that it not only caused the burning feeling when in contact with mucous membranes but also increased secretion of gastric juice. The structure of capsaicin was partly elucidated by E. K. Nelson in 1919.[2] Capsaicin was first synthesized in 1930 by E. Spath and F. S. Darling. In 1961, similar substances were isolated from chili peppers by the Japanese chemists S. Kosuge and Y. Inagaki, who named them capsaicinoids.[3] [4]

      Capsaicinoids

      Capsaicin is the main capsaicinoid in chili peppers, followed by dihydrocapsaicin. These two compounds are also about twice as potent to the taste and nerves as the minor capsaicinoids nordihydrocapsaicin, homodihydrocapsaicin, and homocapsaicin. Dilute solutions of pure capsaicinoids produced different types of pungency; however, these differences were not noted using more concentrated solutions.
      Capsaicin is believed to be synthesized in the interlocular septa of chili peppers by addition of a branched-chain fatty acid to vanillylamine. Biosynthesis depends on the gene AT3, which resides at the pun1 locus, and which encodes a putative acyltransferase.[5]
      Besides the six natural capsaicinoids, one synthetic member of the capsaicinoid family exists. Vanillylamide of n-nonanoic acid (VNA) is used as a reference substance for determining the relative pungency of capsaicinoids.

      Natural function

      Capsaicin is present in large quantities in the placental tissue (which holds the seeds), the internal membranes and, to a lesser extent, the other fleshy parts of the fruits of plants in the genus Capsicum. Contrary to popular belief, the seeds themselves do not produce any capsaicin, although the highest concentration of capsaicin can be found in the white pith around the seeds.[6] The seeds of Capsicum plants are predominantly dispersed by birds, as birds lack the receptor to detect capsaicin (i.e., because they cannot sense capsaicin, it is not an irritant to birds). Chili pepper seeds consumed by birds pass through the digestive tract unharmed, whereas those consumed by mammals do not germinate at all. The presence of capsaicin in the fruits therefore protects them from being consumed by mammals.

      In 2006 it was discovered that tarantula venom activates the same pathway of pain as is activated by capsa
      "For God hates utterly
      The bray of bragging tongues."
      Sophocles, Antigone Spoken by the Leader of the Chorus of Theban Elders

      Comment


      • #4
        That is why you saw quite a few lame/uneven horses in dressage they tend not to break the rules like the show jumpers but many could have used a little help.
        Love and compassion are necessities, not luxuries. Without them, humanity cannot survive. Dalai Lama

        Comment


        • #5
          Originally posted by ridgeback View Post
          That is why you saw quite a few lame/uneven horses in dressage they tend not to break the rules like the show jumpers but many could have used a little help.

          This is so good to know! And here I was operating under the assumption they used the same testing protocols and testing labs for ALL THREE Olympic disciplines! Glad to hear the jumpers get cut some slack! D'ya suppose they lose the samples of some riders/teams?



          ridgeback are you sure you aren't alysheba back under a new name?
          Your crazy is showing. You might want to tuck that back in.

          Comment


          • #6
            http://www.eurodressage.com/reports/...pr_doping.html
            --
            Europe\'s Largest Dressage and Breeding News Related Website
            http://www.eurodressage.com

            Comment


            • #7
              I just saw the news-if Norway's team is DQ'd then I guess Britain gets the team bronze.
              How unfortunate to have this happen after the problems in Athens.
              You can't fix stupid-Ron White

              Comment


              • #8
                DMK - you know it's only the jumpers that are dirty. I mean look at McLain
                Visit us on Facebook at www.facebook.com/ranchopampa or our website at www.ranchopampa.com

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                • #9
                  Originally posted by DMK View Post
                  This is so good to know! And here I was operating under the assumption they used the same testing protocols and testing labs for ALL THREE Olympic disciplines! Glad to hear the jumpers get cut some slack! D'ya suppose they lose the samples of some riders/teams?



                  ridgeback are you sure you aren't alysheba back under a new name?
                  Did you not read where I said 'That is why you saw quite a few lame/uneven horses in dressage they tend not to break the rules like the show jumpers but many could have used a little help." Where did I say they weren't operating under the same drug testing rules...Meaning the dressage riders aren't using drugs...DUH and if you think I'm someone called alysheba ask the modertors to check my IP not to mention a few months ago I gave my first and last name Please read before you attack..
                  __________________
                  Love and compassion are necessities, not luxuries. Without them, humanity cannot survive. Dalai Lama

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    Ok so I get what it is...but what effect are people trying to acheive using this?
                    www.simplicityweimaraners.ca

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      Originally posted by JanM View Post
                      I just saw the news-if Norway's team is DQ'd then I guess Britain gets the team bronze.
                      How unfortunate to have this happen after the problems in Athens.
                      That would be Switzerland.. Great Britian was 7th.
                      http://results.beijing2008.cn/WRM/EN...html#EQX402103
                      Love and compassion are necessities, not luxuries. Without them, humanity cannot survive. Dalai Lama

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        Well, it's a topical substance, so maybe applying it to the front of the legs so that the horse's won't want to touch rails?

                        Also, since it's topical how easy would it be for someone to sneak around the barns and smear some on a bunch of horses as a measure of sabotage? Especially since it's horses from a bunch of different countries with the exact same substance? Not saying that's the case of course, just wondering...
                        Zenyatta and Rachel ROCK!

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                        • #13
                          Originally posted by Carrera View Post
                          Ok so I get what it is...but what effect are people trying to acheive using this?
                          It's a pain killer.

                          When the OTC product Equi-Block came out, it originally contained shedloads of capsaicin. Once the federations started testing for it they made another version & now there are two versions of that product... one for horses who are not subject to drug testing and another for those who are!
                          "The standard you walk by is the standard you accept."--Lt. Gen. David Morrison, Austalian Army Chief

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                          • Original Poster

                            #14
                            Thank you, that was very informative.

                            Comment


                            • #15
                              Someone please correct me if I am wrong but I would suspect that it was not being used as a pain reliever. Having used some pain relievers myself (when not competing) with capsaicin in them I can tell you that the first few times you use it it BURNS!!!! I learnt that lesson the hard way and always check to see if it is a content as I will never use it again because of that fact. I would suspect that it was being used to produce a similar result as plastic chips in boots etc...

                              Comment


                              • #16
                                Originally posted by ClearviewFarm View Post
                                Not trying to start a train wreck, just genuinely want to know what this substance is and why it is so "bad". It seems as if it is natural, derived from chili peppers. Is the FEI too strict? Do they not allow ANY substances at all, or just within "therapeutic" levels?

                                Please inform.
                                Not excusing or condoning an intentional act - just so y'all know.

                                But sometimes I think we need to have a degree in chemistry before going to the feed store. There's all sorts of OTC products that contained banned substances in them. No warning on the label, and the substance may be listed by a different name in the list of ingredients. Or, the consumer just didn't verify that the product was ok to use. I know, ignorance is no excuse. Still - I could imagine a scenario in which an innocent person is found guilty.

                                I don't know if this is still true in endurance - but years ago I knew of a lady that was accused of giving her horse caffeine. It was true - but the lady was an honest person.... just had been spiking her horse's drinking water with "herbal tea" to encourage him to drink. Turns out the "herbal tea"... had caffeine in it. She was mortified.

                                Guess things could be different at the upper echelons... but maybe it's still possible for a seemingly benign substance to not be so benign - and the person truly innocent. But how on earth can you defend yourself... I can't think of a way. Even if the rider isn't at fault - he/she is responsible. Maybe there is no way to win once accused.
                                Brothers and sisters, I bid you beware
                                Of giving your heart to a dog to tear.
                                -Rudyard Kipling

                                Comment


                                • #17
                                  It's a topical substance used to kill pain, the last thing you would do is put it on a horse if you wanted him to sting from hitting the rails. It's typically used as an ingredient in overnight hoof packing to take the sting out of feet. In fact it is the ingredient in Magic Cushion, used by damn near everyone (dressage riders included).

                                  However, and speaking hypothetically, if your horse had an abrasion on the bulb of his heel, I can see Magic Cushion getting up in it and subsequently in the system. Given the sensitivity of the ELISA test, it's entirely possible it was used and discontinued well before the competition started. Of course we will never know because they NEVER discuss amounts found in the sample, which to me, does a disservice to all the riders (dressage and show jumping) who have been in this place before.

                                  I mean come one, who here thinks Ludger's case in the last Olympics even began to compare to the Irish guy's case (sorry blanking on his name)?

                                  Ridgeback, your post is just wrong on so many levels it is almost humorous. Last time I laughed that hard it involved sammiches. And trust me, you really don't have to lecture me on mod duties!
                                  Your crazy is showing. You might want to tuck that back in.

                                  Comment


                                  • #18
                                    Topical anesthetic is my understanding. In addition to the equiblock, also an ingredient in Magic Cushion hoof packing and some topical preparations for humans. Also present in Black as Knight which is given orally.
                                    The Evil Chem Prof

                                    Comment


                                    • #19
                                      Correct.

                                      Interesting to remember that the FEI allowed ALL horses the option of FREE testing when they arrived. This means that these products have been used DURING the games?..Is that correct?..If so,life ban is the way to go.
                                      www.australiancolouredperformancehorses.com.au

                                      Comment


                                      • #20
                                        Originally posted by belambi View Post
                                        Correct.

                                        Interesting to remember that the FEI allowed ALL horses the option of FREE testing when they arrived. This means that these products have been used DURING the games?..Is that correct?..If so,life ban is the way to go.
                                        Not necessarily. They could have opted out of the optional free testing.
                                        The Evil Chem Prof

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