My vet in Lexington has had several companies try to get him to try cross linking technology on tendons. I have read a little but have more questions than answers. He did some of the foundation research years ago on PRP for tendons but has no opinion as to Cross-linking of tendons. I think one of the companies is called "Next".
Does anyone out there know anyone or have you tried this technology? I don't have a horse (knock on wood ) that needs it but I like to keep up with technology in horse care.
I have no experience with this, but wondering aloud why you would want to cross-link tendons (tendon fibers is what I'm guessing this is about....for repairing injuries?)
Pls excuse my ignorance on this subject but, yes they do it for injured tendons. There are several approaches in the market and being field tested but I have not had anyone I know standup and say "Hey, it's great!". I work in Lexington, KY where I come across a ton of research projects and also from my Vet who does a ton of field work on new technologies and I have absolutely NO information one way or another on this. It is driving me crazy. Trust me if they get any foothold of positive information on this, the racing scene in Lexington will be all over it.
The one company is read up on I think was called "Next"? I do not know enough about the subject but one of the things they showed was the scar tissue even dissipating. The problem I have is tendon strands run vertical and cosslinking binds them horizontally. My question is , does this cause a problem with vertical flextion? I don't know.
While tendon fibers do sort of run vertically, an untouched tendon also has "horizontal" bonds, collagen bonds.
Normal physical development involves the addition and/or loss of tendon tissue, and what the cross-linking seems to do encourage "tendon building" bonding to recover from injury or age-related tissue loss.
The article I linked talked about how tendon tissue can undergo that natural "building" process with the correct loading/unloading. In damaged limbs, or where movement is restricted by pain, the trouble with trying to build the tendon back up is more in having trouble getting the right loading to occur, and without that "activation" the collagen cross-links have no motivation to convert into the trivalent state. You can sort of skip the loading requirement by forcing the cross link to occur. Sort of.
The scar tissue disspating is also interesting, because that can happen too, without chemical cross-linking. My Right Arm flexor tendons are a trainwreck, and years of physiotherapy did prove that adhesions and scar tissue can often be "worn away" gradually by working the tendons and building the healthy tissue. It's like you break away/damage scarring, and if you're carefully loading/unloading the tendon you encourage it to build up healthy tissue instead of scarring when it is immobile. If you couldn't dissipate scar tissue somehow, my arm would have about 10 pounds of it stuck in there.
Similarly related, in the last reconstruction on my arm, tendon grafts were used as well as a tendon lengthening procedure that involves cutting the tendons in a "Z" shape, pulling them apart, and stitching the ends further apart. Obviously, the cutting produces scar tissue, and post operatively they hold these tendons in an actively loaded splint...which promotes the formation of tendon tissue, not rigid scar tissue.
The chemical cross-linking they describe is exactly what happens when you strength train. You "damage" your soft tissues slightly, and they "repair" by adding tissue. The benefits of strength/resistance training are limited by range of motion, our ability to load the structures of the body...this cross-linking sounds like it can cause the "repair" to happen without the loading.
Lifestyle coordinator for Zora, Spooky, Wolfgang and Warrior
Didn't know you needed 'technology' to get copper into a horse. It's in any number of tasty supplements. ???
A copper sulfate and hydroxylysine treatment regimen for enhancing collagen cross-linking and biomechanical properties in engineered neocartilage
Eleftherios A. Makris*,†, Regina F. MacBarb*, Donald J. Responte*, Jerry C. Hu* and Kyriacos A. Athanasiou*,1
+ Author Affiliations
*Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California–Davis, Davis, CA USA; and
†Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Musculoskeletal Trauma, University of Thessaly (Biomed), Larisa, Greece
↵1Correspondence: Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California Davis, One Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616, USA. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The objective of this study was to improve the biomechanical properties of engineered neotissues through promoting the development of collagen cross-links. It was hypothesized that supplementing medium with copper sulfate and the amino acid hydroxylysine would enhance the activity of lysyl oxidase enzyme to form collagen cross-links, increasing the strength and integrity of the neotissue. Neocartilage constructs were generated using a scaffoldless, self-assembling process and treated with copper sulfate and hydroxylysine, either alone or in combination, following a 2-factor, full-factorial study design. Following a 6-wk culture period, the biomechanical and biochemical properties of the constructs were measured. Results found copper sulfate to significantly increase pyridinoline (PYR) cross-links in all copper sulfate-containing groups over controls. When copper sulfate and hydroxylysine were combined, the result was synergistic, with a 10-fold increase in PYR content over controls. This increase in PYR cross-links manifested in a 3.3-fold significant increase in the tensile properties of the copper sulfate + hydroxylysine group. In addition, an 123% increase over control values was detected in the copper sulfate group in terms of the aggregate modulus. These data elucidate the role of copper sulfate and hydroxylysine toward improving the biomechanical properties of neotissues through collagen cross-linking enhancement.—Makris, E. A., MacBarb, R. F., Responte, D. J., Hu, J. C., Athanasiou, K. A. A copper sulfate and hydroxylysine treatment regimen for enhancing collagen cross-linking and biomechanical properties in engineered neocartilage.
I really try to avoid the Forums due to the lack of intelligent response but the last two responses were awesome and well thought out and written!
But, getting to the bottom line I still am not finding ANYONE who is shouting from the rooftops this protocol is the way to go. I have business in Lexington and between my vets I know not one is saying yes or no. I just thought it was funny since tendon problems can be so debilitating. Thanks you guys!!!