Really hard to say, as different horses take different times to aclimate to a new location, adjust to having a rider, and to find their balance. In general though, in 5 weeks, on a horse with truely solid groundwork, I would normally be walk/trot/canter, turn on the forehand, and some leg yeild (although corners at the canter may still be iffy). I would also have had the horse out of the arena a bit (weather permitting).
But I wouldn't judge a trainer badly if they waited to canter as for some horses that is the right thing to do.
I usually introduce canter on the first ride. How accomplished they become in their leads and such depends on the horse. But yes most, even those with limited previous ground work are w/t/c, and pretty good turning at 4 weeks.
Absolutely. The leads may be a little touch and go, though.
I really don't do much with my 3-year-olds before sending them off for training, except for the usual...ties up, stands for farrier, clip, pull mane, etc. Haven't had a one that wasn't W-T-C by 30 days, including learning to saddle, etc.
Yes, depends on the horse, his mind and body (mainly balance).
All I can say is that the friends of mine who picked the number of days first (30, 60, whathaveyou) and expected a standard level of training for that were the most unhappy. Those who said to the trainer, "I want to be able to my ammy butt (or whatever butt) on him and W/T/C. Having had him a week or 10 days, how long to you think he needs to stay?" were much more pleased.
One would think so, but there are a lot of variables.
Star had been introduced to lunging before being officially started, but I don't think he'd ever worn a saddle or bridle or a surcingle. I think he was doing W-T-C in the main ring and going for u/s walks around the property by the second week. The girl who was starting him got bored and trotted him over an x at about week three.
But, on the other extreme, a horse started at about the same time was such a drama queen about wearing a saddle that I'm not sure anyone ever got on him.