Not sure if this will be helpful
I am Jewish, though not particularly observant, and for me personally I have found it to be a very beautiful, very wise religion when I needed faith and to lean on the wisdom accrued by many many generations. Anyone can go to a synagogue; you don't have to be Jewish. There are several levels of "Jewishness," for lack of a better descriptor; there's orthodox, conservative, and reform. If you wanted to attend a service at a synagogue, you would probably be most comfortable going to a reform synagogue at first, as they tend to have more of the service in English, be more generally relaxed and there wouldn't be a huge "culture shock" as there might be if you went to an orthodox service with men and women seated separately, most of the service (if not all) in Hebrew, men not shaking your hand (an orthodox Jewish man will not touch a woman who is not part of his family, and an orthodox Jewish woman will not touch a man who is not part of her family). Though, there is a quite orthodox group in my town, the local Chabad, and the rabbi and his wife who lead the Chabad are among the most wonderfully welcoming, funny, insightful, wise couples I have ever met.
The rabbis I have known have loved to talk and ask questions -- they are scholars who are accustomed to learning/debating/discussing issues in groups. The good ones are also very funny, which is always a nice adjunct to spirituality, in my opinion. I think they would be pleased to get a call from someone saying that they were curious and could they come to a service. Chances are that if you wanted, you could be connected with some nice friendly member of the congregation who, again if you wanted, would meet you at the door and make sure you didn't have to walk in alone, etc.
I am not well-versed enough in the religion to describe Judaism's beliefs, but in general (and maybe getting some things wrong), Jews don't believe Jesus was the son of God (we believe Jesus was a charasmatic guy who lived 2000 years ago and inspired an enormously successful religion) or that Jesus was resurrected, we don't believe in Hell and the idea of Heaven is alittle vague because you are supposed to find Heaven (at least enough pieces of it) through enjoying your work, your studies, your communities, [your horse], and your family while you're here on earth, and family and community are big core values. Many Jewish people do not eat pork or shellfish, but many do, and then there are different rules for Chinese food. :-) (That is a family joke; my father was raised orthodox, and as a rule he didn't eat pork but he would make an exception for BBQd Chinese ribs).
Major holidays are Channukah (commemorates a battle where an enemy king tried to destroy all the Jewish temples but there was one temple where the sacred candles kept burning for eight days even though they should have run out of fuel oil), Passover (which commemorates when the Jews were slaves of the Egyptian Pharoah Ramses and a series of plagues came to the area that the Jews claimed were God's retribution, and the Pharoah let the slaves go after the Pharoah's son was killed but the sons of the Jews lived -- ie, the Jews' children were "passed over" by the Angel of the Death), Rosh Hashanah (New Year, in September; a happy holiday), and Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement, very solemn).
Jews for Jesus are considered a different religion than most Jews, I believe. I always thought of them as some weird cult (just my upbringing; others may see it differently).
I think it would be good to ask a rabbi for legitimate "Judaism for Dummies" books or "Cliffnotes to Judaism," so you could be sure you were getting the right information, vs. some outlier's manifesto. :-)